In this section

Digitization Policies and Procedures

Why: Mission

The personnel in the Department of Special Collections and FIT Archives at the Fashion Institute of Technology|SUNY (FIT|SPARC) are responsible for arranging, preserving, and making accessible its holdings to the extent that resources allow and to as wide an audience as possible. FIT|SPARC personnel are cognizant of the growing demand for digitally-reformatted material and the many benefits to be enjoyed by all parties from acquiring and creating digital resources and making them available over the long-term.

Both in terms of policy and principle, FIT|SPARC personnel adhere as closely as possible to the standards and best practices established by such authorities as the Library of Congress or LoC (http://www.loc.gov/preserv/prd/presdig/presintro.html) and its National Digital Library Program (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/techIn.html); the Bibliographical Center for Research or BCR (http://www.bcr.org/cdp/best/digital-imaging-bp.pdf; merged with the Collaborative Digitization Program); the Western States Digital Standards Group Digital Imaging Working Group, also a part of the BCR (http://www.bcr.org/cdp/best/wsdibp_v1.pdf); and the New York State Archives (http://www.archives.nysed.gov/aindex.shtml). Indeed much of the language below is largely that of the above-mentioned authorities and edited where necessary.

FIT|SPARC also strives to exemplify the traits of trusted digital repositories as defined by the Research Libraries Group (http://www.oclc.org/programs/ourwork/past/trustedrep/repositories.pdf). To be trusted as a repository that can meet the needs and expectations of its users, a digital repository must:
    Accept responsibility for the long-term maintenance of digital resources on behalf of its depositors and for the benefit of current and future users;

    Have an organizational system that supports not only long-term viability of the repository, but also the digital information for which it has responsibility;

    Demonstrate fiscal responsibility and sustainability;

    Design its system(s) in accordance with commonly accepted conventions and standards to ensure the ongoing management, access, and security of materials deposited within it;

    Establish methodologies for system evaluation that meet community expectations of trustworthiness;

    Be depended upon to carry out its long-term responsibilities to depositors and users openly and explicitly; and

    Have policies, practices, and performance that can be audited and measured.
 
What: Digitization Selection Criteria

Digitizing with Purpose

If an analog image or collection meets one or more of the following criteria, then it is a strong candidate for digitization; once captured, it should be added to the digital repository including required descriptive and technical metadata. Add as much optional metadata as resources allow.
    Use/demand for access: high frequency of demand or high retrieval costs
    Size of original, unusual or unwieldy dimensions
    Format
Maps
Photographs
Prints
Drawings
Paintings
Scrapbooks
Postcards
Etc.
    High intrinsic value
    Clear ownership of material and copyright to it or ease of granted permission
    Visual impact
    Physical instability: items that are not serviceable because of damage or fragility; items stored on unstable media
    Representative example of document type
    Historical significance: high-value research materials
    Seminal items or collections

These criteria also provide guidance when selecting material for digitization grant proposals and online exhibition initiatives.

Digitizing on Demand

If a researcher asks for digitized images, and as long as resources allow (time, human, monetary, etc.), then add the files to the digital repository including required descriptive and technical metadata. Add as much optional metadata as resources allow. Consider and document where the requested material fits into a larger context and let that be a guide for additional programmatic digitizing.

How Act 1: General Principles as recommended by LoC
    Retain an analog version of digitally-reformatted items until there is confidence that the life-cycle management of digital data will ensure access for as long as, or longer than, the analog version. The analog version may be the original item, paper facsimile, or microfilm copy, and may be restricted for use after the digital reproduction is available.

    Ensure the appropriate handling and treatment of originals, and work with curators, recommending officers, and other personnel to make decisions about disbinding, housing, and related matters.

    Minimize handling of originals in the digital reformatting work to assure the best digital capture of an undamaged original, as well as the longevity of the original item, especially if it is to serve as the analog version.

    Ensure that the digital master file will allow a broad range of future use, including planned phases of delivery, by employing appropriate standards and best practices.

    Capture the highest quality digital image technically possible and economically feasible for large-scale production, while optimizing the potential for longevity.

    Archive a digital master file that is free of, or minimizes, artifacts introduced by the reformatting process, whenever possible.

    Ensure the completeness of all materials being digitally reformatted to a standard comparable to that employed for preservation microfilm.

    Optimize digital images of paper-based text materials for use in creating a new paper facsimile, when appropriate.

    Employ economical, automated methods to create machine-readable text with minimal encoding to provide access with searchable text and allow for future expanded use and encoding, when appropriate.

    Employ standards and best practices for structural, administrative, and descriptive metadata that will optimize interoperability and facilitate the life-cycle management of the digital objects.

    Document digital master file contents with MD5 checksums (or a similar tool) and use them to ensure the data integrity of master files through back-up and migration. FIT|SPARC employs an MS Excel database to record relevant documentation of all digital repository assets.

How Act 2: Life-Cycle Management of Digital Data

Creating digital images is only the beginning; they require long-term management that must be multi-pronged to ensure legibility and integrity over the long-term. Important points to consider include:
    Media longevity - media on which digital data are stored;

    Environmental conditions - conditions in which holding media are stored and used;

    Storage and handling of media on which digital files are held;

    Software and hardware requirements - tools needed to ensure longevity and usability of digital data and metadata; and

    Workflow requirements - policies and practices needed to ensure longevity and usability of all digital data, metadata, and tools.


How Act 3: Technical Standards and Processes

General Principles

    Digitize at the highest resolution appropriate to the nature of the source material.

    Digitize at an appropriate level of quality to avoid re-digitizing and re-handling of the originals in the future.

    Digitize an original or first generation (i.e., negative rather than print) of the source material to achieve the best quality image possible. In the case of art prints, the developed print is considered the original piece. Conservation concerns may prevent digitizing original negatives.

    Create and store a master image file that can be used to produce surrogate image files and serve a variety of current and future user needs.

    Use system components that are nonproprietary.

    Use image file formats and compression techniques that conform to standards within the cultural heritage community.

    Create backup copies of all files on servers and have an off-site backup strategy.

    Create meaningful metadata for image files or collections

    Store digital files in an appropriate environment.

    Monitor data as necessary.

    Document a migration strategy for transferring data across generations of technology.

    Plan for future technological developments.

    Evaluate routinely all preservation elements for accessibility/readability; document findings in M:\Lib_Spcol\Preservation\Digital_asset_preservation_log.xlsx

    Store identical copies of all Masters off-site (Work on reciprocity agreement; local institution or not in NYC?)

 
Specific-to-Format Principles (alphabetical order)

Static Media (Dynamic Media starts on Page #)

Artwork/3-Dimensional Objects

Master

Access

Thumbnail

 

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

48 bit color

24 bit color

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

Device Maximum

300 PPI

144 PPI

 

Spatial

Dimensions

100% of original

600 pixels across the

long dimension

150 200 pixels across

the long dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Film

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

 

Resolution to be

calculated from actual image format and/or dimensions - approx. 2800 PPI for 35mm originals, ranging to approx. 600 PPI for 8x10 originals

150 to 200 PPI

144 PPI

 

Spatial

Dimensions

 

4000 to 8000 pixels

across long dimension of image area, depending on size of original and excluding mounts and borders

600 pixels across the

long dimension

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Graphic Material

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

600 to 800 PPI

150 to 200 PPI

144 PPI

 

Spatial

Dimensions

 

6000 to 8000 pixels

across the long

dimension, excluding

mounts and borders

600 pixels across the

long dimension

 

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

 

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Maps

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

600 PPI

 

150 to 200 PPI

144 PPI

Spatial

Dimensions

 

6000 to 8000 pixels

across the long dimension

1078 pixels across the

long dimension

 

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Negatives

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

2400 PPI                      

450 PPI

144-300 PPI

Spatial

Dimensions

 

Resolution to be

calculated from actual image format and/or dimensions

600 pixels across the

long dimension

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Photographs

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

400 to 800 PPI

150 to 200 PPI

144 PPI

 

Spatial

Dimensions

 

4000 to 8000 pixels

across the long

dimension, depending on size of original, excluding mounts and borders

600 pixels across the

long dimension

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Slides

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

TIFF

JPEG

JPEG

Bit Depth

16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

Spatial

Resolution

2400 PPI                      

450 PPI

144-300 PPI

Spatial

Dimensions

 

Resolution to be

calculated from actual image format and/or dimensions

600 pixels across the

long dimension

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

Text documents

Master

Access

Thumbnail

File Format

PDF/A

PDF

PDF

Bit Depth

1 bit bitonal

8 to 16 bit grayscale

48 bit color

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

 

8 bit grayscale

24 bit color

 

Spatial

Resolution

Adjust scan resolution to produce a minimum pixel

measurement across the long dimension of 6,000 lines for 1 bit files and 4,000 lines for 8 to 16 bit files

150 200 PPI

 

144 PPI

Spatial

Dimensions

4000 to 6000 pixels across the long dimension

 

600 pixels across the

long dimension

 

150 to 200 pixels

across the long

dimension

Storage

Save as PDF/A; Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

 

 

 

Dynamic Media

 

Audio

Master and reproduction copy

Duplicate Master

Use Copy

Format

WAVE (.wav) OR Broadcast Wave Format (.bwf)

WAVE (.wav) OR Broadcast Wave Format (.bwf)

MPG-3

Software (access)

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Hardware (storage)

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

Gold DVD-R

DVD-R (not gold)

Video

Master and reproduction copy

Duplicate Master

Use Copy

Format

Motion JPEG2000 (MJPEG2000 or MPEG2K OR MPEG-4 (depending on tolerable risk of information loss)

Motion JPEG2000 (MJPEG2000 or MPEG2K OR MPEG-4 (depending on tolerable risk of information loss)

MPG-4

Software (access)

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Quicktime; iTunes; Windows Media Player

Hardware (storage)

Store one (1) master file on each of the two (2) hard disk drives (HDD; until solid state drives become more reasonable AND/OR we have server space) AND a Gold DVD-R

Gold DVD-R

DVD-R (not gold)


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